Industrial Revolution and Russia

The Industrial Revolution was known as a time when technology became more popular.  Technological power increased, along with the invention of machines.  The Industrial Revolution affected and changed Russia as Russian blacksmiths used techniques from Western European ironmasters.

The Iron industry in Russia changed rapidly as more Iron was produced from new methods developed by the French people.  “In 1800, the Russian iron industry was the world’s largest producer of bar iron.  However, between 1800 and 1860, the production of iron increased from 100,000 tons to 160,000 tons” (R Hill).  When the French and British arrived in Russia, the Russians learned more about their techniques and developed the Konstuazkii hearth, which has led Iron Production to increase.  “In the late 1830s, Konstuazkii hearth was implemented in order to improve systems of bellows used in fining” (Hill).  The creation of the Konstuazkii hearth have helped to save materials.  “In the past, wood was used in order to harvest bar iron.  However, improvements have led to less wood consumption” (R Hill). From different types of energy created, Russian ironmasters began to diversify their techniques by using different energy sources to create the final product.   “By 1860, steam power and water turbines together provided only some 21 percent of total power in Russian smelting, fining and puddling” (R Hill). Therefore, the Iron industry has impacted Russia’s international presence on the technological industry.

Pig Iron
The efficient techniques have led to “levels of fuel consumption to be lower” (R.Hill).  Energy was easily conserved due to the new techniques implemented by the Russian blacksmiths. During the Industrial Revolution, “Russia produced 1.6 to 1.9 ton of pig iron” (R. Hill).  This was caused by the use of furnaces.  “Improvements in charcoal-based smelting technology were created by using larger blast furnaces” (R. Hill).  The emergence of new machines have also led to an impact in the output of different materials.  As a result, “The output of Pig Iron increased from 163,000 tons in 1800 to 298,000 tons in 1860” (R. Hill).

While Iron and Pig Iron production increased, Steel production continued to expand. “Steel was first produced from bar iron reheated in pots using charcoal from 1800 and onwards.  However, the large scale production of steel at lower cost commenced on an international scale in the mid-18050s, using the Bessemer converter and 1860s, using the Siemens-Martin converter” (R Hill).  Russian blacksmiths have developed many techniques from foreigners in order to produce steel at a lower cost.

Puddling Furnace
Puddling Furnace altered the Russian economy.  “It was first introduced in St. Petersburg in 1808.  A Russian blacksmith, Pozhevsk decided to carry out experiments in 1817.  From the puddling furnace, results were that the machine produced more wood than iron. The outcomes were great since Russians found a new way to develop new materials.  The Puddling furnace led to a development of coal using other materials than wood” (R. Hill).  The use of Russian puddled iron later became popular due to the development of the puddling furnace.  As a result, puddling furnace has affected Russia greatly due to trade and the output of new materials.

The Industrial Revolution changed many aspects of Russia, and introduced many new types of materials and techniques.  There was also new machines created, such as the Puddling Furnace.  The increase of steel and iron indicate the change of energy production in Russia.  The Industrial Revolution led to a good outcome and its impacts can still be seen nowadays.


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